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Morocco (Arabic المغرب‎, al-Maġrib), officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية, al-Mamlakah al-Maġribiyya), is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of over 32 million and an area of 710.850 km², including the disputed. Western Sahara which is mainly under Moroccan administration. Morocco has a coast on the Atlantic Ocean that reaches past the Straight of Gibraltar into the Mediterranea Sea. It is bordered by Spain to the north (a water border through the Strait and land borders with three small Spanish exclaves, Ceuta, Mellila and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Algeria to the east, and Mauritania to the south.


The history of Morocco spans over 12 centuries, and the country was first created by the Idrisid dynasty, whose origins are from Saudi Arabia, representing the first Islamic state in Africa autonomous from the Arab Empire. Under the Almoravid dynasty and the Almohad dynasty, Morocco dominated the Magreb and Muslim Spain. The Reconquista ended Almohad rule in Iberia and many Musilms and Jews migrated to Morocco. Under the Saadi Dynasty, Morocco would consolidate power and fight off Portuguese and Ottoman invaders, as in the battel of Ksar el Kebir. The reign of Ahmad al-Mansur brought new wealth and prestige to the Sultanate, and an invasion of the Songhay Empire was initiated.

However, managing the territories across the Sahara proved too difficult. After the death of al-Mansur the country was divided among his sons. In 1666 the sultanate was reunited by the Alaouite dynasty who have since been the ruling house in Morocco. The organization of the state developed with Ismail Ibn Sharif. With his Black Guard he drove the English from Tangier (1684) and the Spanish from Larache (1689).

The Alaouite dynasty distinguished itself in the 20th century by maintaining Moroccan independence while other states in the region succumbed to European interests. In 1912, after the First Moroccon crisis and the Agadir Crisis, the Treaty of Fez was signed, effectively dividing Morocco into a French and Spanish Protectora In 1956, after 44 years of occupation Morocco regained indepedence from France as the Kingdom of Morocco.

The population is almost entirely Arab-Berber and mixed arab berbers. The Berber in Morocco can be divided in three main groups with different dialects: the Riffians the Chleuh and the Central Moroccan Amazigh. A large Jewish lived in Morocco before the creation of Israel, numbering approximately 265,000 in 1948. Between 7,000 and 12,000 live there now, mostly in Casablanca, but also in Fes and other major cities. A call made by late king Hassan IIt o return to Morocco was not answered.

Morocco is the world's third-largest producer of phosphorus and the price fluctuations of phosphates on the international market greatly influence Morocco's economy.
The Kingdom of Morocco Profile

Population: 32.3 million (UN, 2011)
Capital: Rabat
Largest city: Casablanca
Area: 710,850 sq km (274,461 sq miles)
Major languages: Arabic (official), Berber, French, Spanish
Major religion: Islam
Currency: Dirham = 100 centimes
Main exports: Minerals, seafood products, citrus fruit
GNI per capita: US $2,900 (World Bank, 2010)
Internet domain: .ma
International dialling code
: +212